# PHYSICS

Course Code BSC206 S2 100 hours Statement of Attainment We live in a physical world where everything you see, hear, feel and touch is affected by physics.
When you understand physics better, you can also do most things better.

Physics allows us to work more efficiently.

Without an understanding of physics we wouldn't have effective tools and equipment; and the work we do on farms and in gardens would be much more limited.

## Lesson Structure

1. Review of Basic Algebra
• Introduction
• Equations and formulae
• Variables
• Quadratic equations
• Graphing
• Geometry
• Triangles
• Basic formulae
• Quadrilaterals
• Angles and radians
• Logarithms and exponentials
• Trigonometry
2. Introduction: Scope and Nature of Physics
• Observing, measuring, modeling, predicting
• Units of measurement
• Converting between units
• Precision of measurements and identifying significant digits
3. Forces and Mechanics
• Physics and motion
• Displacement
• Speed and velocity
• Acceleration
• Force
• Force of gravity
• Work
• Power
• Energy
4. Waves
• What are waves
• Properties of waves: longitudinal waves, transverse waves
• Wave terminology
• Relationship of frequency or period
• Wave speed
• Electromagnetic radiation and waves
• Sound waves
• Sound spectrum
• Measuring sound
• Speed of sound
• Doppler effect
• Standing waves and resonance
5. Electricity and Magnetism
• Electrostatics
• Conductors and insulators
• How to make an electroscope
• Coulomb's law
• The electric field
• Electricity and electric circuits
• Current
• Voltage
• Resistance
• Power
• Ohm's law
• Circuits: series, parallel
• Magnets
• Magnetic forces
• Ferromagnetism
• Creating magnets
• Earth's magnetic fiels
• Geomagnetic reversal
• Electromagnetism
• Electromagnetism and solenoids
• Electric motors
• Magnetic force
• Right hand rule
• Inductors
• Lenz's law
6. Energy and Work
• What is energy
• Mechanical energy
• Potential energy
• Kinetic energy
• Conservation of total energy and mechanical energy
• Converting kinetic energy into potential energy
• Work and force
• Conservative and non conservative forces
• Conservation of mass energy
7. Fundamentals of Thermodynamics
• Temperature measurement units
• Fahrenheit
• Celsius
• Kelvin
• Converting between units
• What is heat
• Heat transfers: thermal equilibrium
• Thermal expansion and thermal contraction
8. Light and Optics
• What is light
• Reflection
• Refraction
• Demonstration of refraction
• Index of refraction
• Difraction
• The electromagnetic spectrum
• How a rainbow forms
• What are mirrors
• Flat mirrors
• Convex mirrors
• Concave mirrors
• Lenses
• Converging lenses
• Diverging lenses
9. Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity
• Structure of matter
• The periodic table
• What is radioactivity
• Alpha radiation
• Beta radiation
• Gamma radiation
• Radioactivity applications
• Nuclear medicine -diagnostic and therapy
• Radioactive tracers in agriculture
• Food irradiation
• Archeological and geological dating
• Radiocarbon dating
• Half life
• Power generation
• Radiation effects and injuries
• Cancer and burns caused by radiation
10. Astronomy, Cosmology and Astrophysics
• What is astronomy
• The pioneers of astronomy
• The branches of astronomy
• Sub fields of astronomy
• Astronomy in our daily life
• The most important discoveries in astronomy
• What is Cosmology
• How did cosmology evolve
• Hubbles law
• Cosmological principle
• Calculate the age of the universe using the Hubble constant
• What is astrophysics

## Physics Starts with Maths

.

When you consider any aspect of physics, you will need to describe it using numbers, and an understanding of mathematics will become fundamental.
In many respects, mathematics is the language of physics.

Once you have a firm grasp on the maths, the course then moves on to consider all of the core subjects needed for a foundation understanding of physics.

Precision of Measurements and Identifying Significant Digits

One of the most important factors which have led to the advances of physics that we have witnessed over the past few years is the precision of measurements. When making measurements, we are now able to obtain very accurate numbers thanks to the advanced equipment that we have at our disposal. Making precise measurement is also very important because it means that we will be analysing precise measurements, which means that there will be less chance of errors in the results that we are trying to find. However, even if we are now able to achieve more significantly precise measurements, we still need to make sure that we account for the possibility of errors in those measurements, in order to be more accurate.

So what are “significant digits” after all?
Significant digits are the actual measurements that were taken. For example, if you read that an object traveled at 19.0 meters during 7.00 seconds, you will know that the measurements are known to 3 significant digits which is the number of the digits in both measurements. Using those numbers, you will be able to calculate the speed at which the object is traveling, by dividing 19.0 by 7.00

## WHY DO WE ALL NEED TO UNDERSTAND PHYSICS?

Physics is part of our every day life; more than what most people realize. Whatever your job; you are going to use physics every time you move yourself, or something else; and every time you hear or see something.

Through the knowledge you derive from this course, you will have an enhanced ability to understand the physical world around you, and be better able to work within that world.
• Gardeners, Tradesmen and Farmers are able to understand and use tools and machinery better, when they understand physics better.
• Tools as simple as wheelbarrows and shovels are all depending upon the basic laws of physics for their optimum use.
• Health and fitness professionals can better comprehend the human body, particularly it's physical structure and the operation of muscles and bones.
• Knowing about energy, force and movement, will provide insights into moving anything and everything from stacking boxes to driving cars.
• Knowing about light and sound energy will enable us to more efficiently manage our use of those energies, from lighting an interior space, to ensuring appropriate acoustics in a meeting.

## It's Easy to Enrol

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